a. Explain memory in terms of information processing and distinguish between short-term and long-term memory.
b. Distinguish between automatic and effortful processing and discuss the importance of rehearsal.
c. Explain the importance of meaning, imagery , and organization in the encoding process.
d. Explain why the capacity to forget can be beneficial and discuss the role of encoding failure in the process of forgetting.
e. Describe the limited nature of sensory and short-term memory.
f. Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory and discuss the physical changes that may underlie memory formation and storage.
g. Distinguish between implicit an explicit memory and identify the different brain structures associated with each.
h. Contrast recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.
i. Describe the importance of retrieval cues and environmental and emotional effects on retrieval.
j. Identify the most effective study strategies.
And if it is necessary to rearrange ones memories then it is necessary to forget that one has done so.
George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four, 1948
a. Encoding the processing of information into the memory system get information into our brain
i. Automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information space, time, and well learned information such as word meanings
ii. Effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
1. rehearsal the conscious repetition of information
2. spacing effect distributed study or practice yields better long-term retention than massed study or practice
3. serial position effect tendency to recall the last and first items in a list
1. encoding meaning associating with what we already know or imagine
2. encoding imagery mental pictures aid in effortful processing
3. Mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
iv. Organizing information for encoding
1. Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
2. hierarchies few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts
b. Storage the retention of encoded information over time
i. Sensory memory immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
1. iconic visual
2. echoic auditory
ii. Short-term memory activated memory that holds a few short items briefly information then stored or forgotten
iii. Long-term memory relatively permanent, limitless storehouse of the memory system
iv. Implicit memory retention without conscious recollection (nondeclarative)
v. Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (declarative)
vi. Hippocampus located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
c. Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory
i. Recall retrieve information learned earlier
ii. Recognition identify items previously learned
iii. Relearning time saved when learning material for a second time
iv. Retrieval cues
1. priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
2. context effects
a. dιjΰ vu Ive experienced this before cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
3. moods and memories
a. mood-congruent memory tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with current good or bad mood
i. Encoding failure
ii. Amnesia loss of memory
iii. Retrieval failure
a. proactive prior learning disrupting recall of new information
b. retroactive new learning disrupting recall of old information
2. Motivated forgetting
a. Repression psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
b. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material
c. Make the material personally meaningful
d. To remember a list of unfamiliar items, use mnemonic devices
e. Refresh your memory by activating retrieval cues
f. Minimize interference
g. Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know
True or False:
1. Memory is never automatic; it always takes effort.
2. After we have learned material, additional rehearsal or overlearning can actually decrease our ability to recall it later.
3. Memory aids that use imagery and devices for organization are no more useful than simple rehearsal of information.
4. Only a few people have any type of photographic memory.
5. Although our capacity for storing information is large, we are still limited in the number of permanent memories we can form.
6. Our experiences are etched on our brain, just as the grooves on a tape receive and retain recorded messages.
7. When people learn something while intoxicated, they recall it best when they are again intoxicated.
8. The hour before sleep is a good time to commit information to memory.
9. With sufficient prompting, most people can recall experiences form the first two years of life.
10. Children typically will repress any memory of having seen one of their parents being murdered.